Key characteristics of complex systems
Emergence: The collective behavior of the system emerges from the interactions of its components, resulting in new properties and patterns at higher levels.
Non-linearity: Small changes in one part of the system can lead to significant and sometimes unpredictable effects elsewhere in the system.
Feedback loops: Interactions between components create feedback loops, where the system's output can influence its own behavior.
Adaptation: Complex systems often exhibit the ability to adapt and evolve in response to changes in their environment.
Interconnectedness: The elements of a complex system are interdependent and interconnected, making it difficult to study them in isolation.
Self Organization: The spontaneous formation of patterns, structures, or behaviors from system interactions without external control.
Non-predicability: Due to the non-linear interactions and feedback, outcomes in complex systems can be hard to forecast
Robustness: The system's ability to withstand disturbances and retain its functions.
Nested Hierarchies: Systems can have multiple levels, with each level having its own emergent properties.
History dependence: Past states and choices can influence the present and future of the system.