Otto L Lecuona Sr

Key characteristics of complex systems

Emergence: The collective behavior of the system emerges from the interactions of its components, resulting in new properties and patterns at higher levels.

Non-linearity: Small changes in one part of the system can lead to significant and sometimes unpredictable effects elsewhere in the system.

Feedback loops: Interactions between components create feedback loops, where the system's output can influence its own behavior.

Adaptation: Complex systems often exhibit the ability to adapt and evolve in response to changes in their environment.

Interconnectedness: The elements of a complex system are interdependent and interconnected, making it difficult to study them in isolation.

Self Organization
: The spontaneous formation of patterns, structures, or behaviors from system interactions without external control.

: Due to the non-linear interactions and feedback, outcomes in complex systems can be hard to forecast

: The system's ability to withstand disturbances and retain its functions.

Nested Hierarchies
: Systems can have multiple levels, with each level having its own emergent properties.

History dependence: Past states and choices can influence the present and future of the system.